DARPA Falcon Project

Illustration of Hypersonic Test Vehicle (HTV) 2 reentry phase

The DARPA Falcon Project (Force Application and Launch from Continental United States) is a two-part joint project between the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the United States Air Force (USAF). One part of the program aims to develop a reusable, rapid-strike Hypersonic Weapon System (HWS), now retitled the Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV), and the other is for the development of a launch system capable of accelerating a HCV to cruise speeds, as well as launching small satellites into earth orbit. This two-part program was announced in 2003 and continued into 2006.[1]

The latest project to be announced under the Falcon banner was a fighter-sized unmanned aircraft called “Blackswift” which would take off from a runway and accelerate to Mach 6 before completing its mission and landing again. The memo of understanding between DARPA and the USAF on Blackswift — also known as the HTV-3X — was signed in September 2007. The Blackswift HTV-3X did not receive needed funding and was canceled in October 2008.[2]

Current research under FALCON program is centered around X-41 Common Aero Vehicle (CAV), a common aerial platform for hypersonic ICBMs and cruise missiles, as well as civilian RLVs and ELVs. The prototype Hypersonic Technology Vehicle-2 (HTV-2) first flew on 22 April 2010; further tests are scheduled for 2011.



[edit] Design and development

[edit] Past projects

The aim was always to be able to deploy a craft from the continental United States, which could reach anywhere on the planet within an hour or two. The X-20 Dyna-Soar in 1957 was the first publicly acknowledged program — although this would have been launched vertically on a rocket and then glided back to Earth, as the Space Shuttle does, rather than taking off from a runway. Originally, the Shuttle was envisaged as a part-USAF operation, and separate military launch facilities were built at Vandenberg AFB at great cost, though never used. After the open DynaSoar USAF program from 1957–1963, spaceplanes went black. In the mid 1960s, the CIA began work on a high-Mach spyplane called Project Isinglass. This developed into Rheinberry, a design for a Mach-17 air-launched reconnaissance aircraft, which was later canceled.[3] Black spending on spaceplanes probably peaked in the 1980s during the Strategic Defense Initiative when Science Dawn, Have Region and Copper Canyon focused efforts on building a spaceplane that could take off from a runway like an aircraft. In 1986, that emerged back into the white world, with President Ronald Reagan‘s announcement of the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP). When that project was canceled in 1992, the spaceplane efforts went black again, until the USAF announced FALCON in 2003, although FALCON at least initially was aimed to build smaller unmanned vehicles.[citation needed]

According to Henry F. Cooper, who was the Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars) under President Reagan, spaceplane projects swallowed $4 billion in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s (excluding the Space Shuttle). This does not include the 1950 and 1960s budgets for the Dynasoar, ISINGLASS, Rheinberry, and any 21st-century spaceplane project which might emerge under Falcon. He told the United States Congress in 2001 that all the United States had in return for those billions of dollars was “one crashed vehicle, a hangar queen, some drop-test articles and static displays”.[4] Others would argue that Falcon — which has been allocated US$170 million for budget year 2008[5] — and its predecessors maintain the United States’ capability to develop a spaceplane quickly, should the need arise.

[edit] FALCON

The overall FALCON program announced in 2003 had two major components: a small launch vehicle for carrying payloads to orbit or launching the hypersonic weapons platform payload, and the hypersonic vehicle itself.[1]

[edit] Small Launch Vehicle

The DARPA FALCON solicitation in 2003 asked for bidders to do development work on proposed vehicles in a first phase of work, then one or more vendors would be selected to build and fly an actual launch vehicle. Companies which won first phase development contracts of $350,000 to $540,000 in November 2003 included:[6]

Phase two for the SLV was won by Air Launch LLC, with a $17.8 million contract awarded in 2005 which provided for further test and development of their QuickReach air-dropped launch vehicle contract.[citation needed]

Additionally, in related Phase two work, DARPA purchased a flight of the Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Falcon 1 launch vehicle which was already under commercial development at the time, for approximately $6 million. The vehicle name and program name were coincidentally the same, but the Falcon launch vehicle predated the DARPA program, having started in 2002 with the founding of SpaceX.[citation needed]

[edit] Hypersonic Weapon System

The first phase of the hypersonic weapon system development was won by three bidders in 2003, each receiving a $1.2 to $1.5 million contract for hypersonic vehicle development:[6]

  • Andrews Space Inc., Seattle, Wash.
  • Lockheed Martin Corp., Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co., Palmdale, Calif.
  • Northrop Grumman Corp., Air Combat Systems, El Segundo, Calif.

Lockheed Martin received the only Phase 2 HWS contract in 2004, to develop technologies further and reduce technology risk on the program.[citation needed]

[edit] Follow on hypersonic program

Illustration of HTV-2 from DARPA

Following the Phase 2 contract, DARPA and the US Air Force continued to develop the hypersonic vehicle platform.

The program was to follow a set of flight tests with a series of hypersonic technology vehicles.[7]

The FALCON project includes:

  • X-41 Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) — a common aerial platform for hypersonic ICBMs and cruise missiles, as well as civilian RLVs and ELVs.
  • Hypersonic Technology Vehicle-1 (HTV-1) — a test concept, originally planned to fly in September 2007, now canceled.[8]
  • HTV-2 — first flew on 22 April 2010, but contact was lost soon after booster separation[9][10][11]
  • HTV-3X — Blackswift, now canceled
  • Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) — a smaller engine to power CAVs, now complete

The Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle (HCV) would be able to fly 9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km) in 2 hours with a payload of 12,000 lb (5,500 kg).[12] It is to fly at a high altitudes and achieve speeds of up to Mach 6.

[edit] Blackswift

The Blackswift was a proposed aircraft capable of hypersonic flight designed by the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, Boeing, and ATK.[13]

The USAF states “The Falcon Blackswift flight demonstration vehicle will be powered by a combination turbine engine and ramjet, an all-in-one power plant. The turbine engine accelerates the vehicle to around Mach 3 before the ramjet takes over and boosts the vehicle up to Mach 6.”[14] Dr. Stephen Walker, the Deputy Director of DARPA’s Tactical Technology Office, will be coordinating the project. He told the USAF website,

I will also be communicating to Lockheed Martin and Pratt & Whitney on how important it is that we get the technical plan in place … I’m trying to build the bridge at the beginning of the program — to get the communication path flowing.

The Falcon program has announced the Mach 6 horizontal take-off Blackswift/HTV-3X. It is also launching the HTV-2 off the top of a rocket booster.[15] Falcon seems to be converging from two directions, on the ultimate goal of producing a hypersonic aircraft which can take off and land from a runway in the USA, and be anywhere in the world in an hour or two. Falcon is methodically proceeding toward a Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle. Dr. Walker said,

We need to fly some hypersonic vehicles — first the expendables, then the reusables — in order to prove to decision makers that this isn’t just a dream… We won’t overcome the skepticism until we see some hypersonic vehicles flying.

The HTV-3X activates its turbojets in transonic flight…

…then ignites its scramjets for the hypersonic phase

Simulation of the Falcon HTV-3X[16]

HTV-3X on approach to Edwards Air Force Base

In October 2008 it was announced that HTV-3X or Blackswift did not receive needed funding in the fiscal year 2009 defense budget and had been canceled. The Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle program will continue with reduced funding.[2][17]

[edit] Flight testing

Flight Test trajectories for HTV 2a and 2b

DARPA intends to assemble two HTV-2s and conduct two flight tests in 2010 and 2011. Each HTV-2 flight will be launched by a Minotaur IV Lite rocket. DARPA will use the flights to demonstrate thermal protection systems and aerodynamic control features.[2] Test flights are supported by NASA, the Space and Missile Systems Center, Lockheed Martin, Sandia National Laboratories and the Air Force Research Laboratory‘s (AFRL) Air Vehicles and Space Vehicles Directorates.

The first HTV-2 flight was launched by a Minotaur IV rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 22 April 2010.[9] The HTV-2 glider was to fly 4,800 miles (7,700 km) across the Pacific to Kwajalein at Mach 20.[15] Although the launch was successful, this first mission appears to be a failure. Initial reports said that contact had been lost with the vehicle nine minutes into the mission.[18][19] In mid-November DARPA revealed, however, that the test flight had ended when the computer autopilot had “commanded flight termination.” According to a DARPA spokesman, “When the onboard system detects [undesirable or unsafe flight] behavior, it forces itself into a controlled roll and pitchover to descend directly into the ocean.” Reviews found that the plane had begun to roll violently.[20] A second flight is planned for early 2011.[18]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b FALCON Force Application and Launch from CONUS Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) PHASE I Proposer Information Pamphlet (PIP) for BAA Solicitation 03-35. DARPA, 2003.
  2. ^ a b c “Falcon Technology Demonstration Program HTV-3X Blackswift Test Bed”. DARPA, October 2008.
  3. ^ Isinglass. astronautix.com
  4. ^ Cooper Testimony. tgv-rockets.com
  5. ^ Space Weapons Spending in the FY 2008 Defense Budget. cdi.org
  6. ^ a b USAF DARPA FALCON Program. Air-attack.com. Retrieved: 2009-04-02.
  7. ^Falcon Technology Demonstration Program: Fact Sheet “. DARPA, January 2006.
  8. ^ “US hypersonic aircraft projects face change as Congress urges joint technology office”. Flight International, 30 May 2006.
  9. ^ a b “First Minotaur IV Lite launches from Vandenberg”. U.S. Air Force, 22 April 2010.
  10. ^US hypersonic glider flunks first test flight “. AFP news agency, 27 March 2010.
  11. ^ Graham Warwick (April 2010-04-24). “DARPA’s HTV-2 Didn’t Phone Home”. Aviation Week. http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/blogs/defense/index.jsp?plckController=Blog&plckBlogPage=BlogViewPost&newspaperUserId=27ec4a53-dcc8-42d0-bd3a-01329aef79a7&plckPostId=Blog%3a27ec4a53-dcc8-42d0-bd3a-01329aef79a7Post%3a70769585-4348-4701-889a-f02c58f38314&plckScript=blogScript&plckElementId=blogDest. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  12. ^ “Propulsion, Materials Test Successes Put Positive Spin on Falcon Prospects”. Aviation Week, 22 July 2007.
  13. ^ Warwick, Graham (24 July 2008)”Boeing Joins Lockheed Martin On Blackswift“. Aviation Week, 24 July 2008. Retrieved: 28 March 2010.
  14. ^ Lorenz III, Philip (17 May 2007). “DARPA official: AEDC ‘critical’ to hypersonics advancement”. Arnold Air Force Base. http://www.arnold.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123053670. Retrieved 28 March 2000. 
  15. ^ a b Little, Geoffrey. “Mach 20 or Bust, Weapons research may yet produce a true spaceplane”. Air & Space Magazine, September 1, 2007.
  16. ^ DARPA promotional video of HTV-3X
  17. ^ Trimble, Stephen. “DARPA cancels Blackswift hypersonic test bed”. Flight Global, 13 October 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  18. ^ a b Clark, Stephen. “New Minotaur rocket launches on suborbital flight”. spaceflightnow.com, April 23, 2010.
  19. ^ Waterman, Shaun, “Flameout May End Space Weapon Plan”, Washington Times, July 23, 2010, p. 1.
  20. ^ Waterman, Shaun (November 25, 2010). “Pentagon to test 2nd near-space strike craft”. The Washington Times. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/nov/25/pentagon-to-test-2nd-near-space-strike-craft/. Retrieved November 30, 2010. 

[edit] External links


Spacecraft developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory
Launch/orbital vehicles
X-33 Venture Star (officially canceled) · HTV-3X Blackswift (canceled) · X-37 Orbital Test Vehicle  · X-40A Space Maneuver Vehicle  · X-51A WaveRider
University Nanosat Program
Program · 3CS · FASTRAC · CUSat · DANDE
Space weather satellites
ARGOS · TSX-5 · Coriolis · C/NOFS · DSX
Technology demonstrators
TAOS · MightySat-1 · MightySat-2 · XSS-10 · TechSat-21 (canceled) · XSS-11 · ISAT · PnPSat-1 (canceled) · ANGELS
Tactical Satellite Program satellites

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